English language version
Geschiedenis van Nederlands Nieuw Guinea
(Irian Jaya/West Papua)

Index:
1. Voor 1828.
2. 1828-1941: Verdeling.
3. 1941-1945: Tweede Wereldoorlog.
4. 1945-1962: Nederlands Nieuw Guinea.
5. 1962-1963: UNTEA.
6. 1963-1969: Irian Barat/Irian Jaya.
7. Na 1969: Irian Jaya.
8. Tijds Balken.

1. Voor 1828.
Papuas bewoonden het Sahul continent (nu gedeeltelijk onder water) al meer dan 40.000 jaar geleden. Als jagers en verzamelaars, gewend aan het tropische regenwoud, bewoonden zij de equatoriale zone die, nadat de zee nivos stegen aan het eind van de Pleistocene Ijstijd, het eiland Nieuw Guinea vormde.
Vroege Civilizaties in Java en Sumatra waren zwaar beinvloed door India en dateert terug tot 100 AD. De Borobudur (een groot Buddistisch monument, buiten Yogyakarta, Java) was gebouwd tussen ca. 778 en 850 AD. In 1292 bezocht Marco Polo Sumatra and Java.
In 1509 bezoeken de Portugezen Melaka (voormalig Malacca, West Malaysia) voor het eerst, met als doel de handel te beheersen. Latere handels rijken werden ondermeer Gowa (op Celebes), Banten (Bantam, voormalige stad en sultanaat op Java), en de VOC, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. The originele doel van allen was geld voor politieke macht, maar zij bleven niet altijd bij hun originele doel.
De eerste Europeanen die Nieuw Guinea aanschouwden waren de Portugezen in 1511/1512, en het werd daarna bezocht door Spaanse, Nederlandes, Duitse en Engelse onderzoekers. Op 13 June, 1545 de Spanjaard Ynigo Ortiz der Retes zeilde met zijn ship "San Juan" van Tidore naar Mexico. He lande op 3 Noordelijke eilanden, die hij "La Selvillana" (Supiori eiland), "La Callega" (Biak eiland) en "Los Martyre" (Numfor Eiland) noemde. Een paar dagen later lande hij bij de mond van de rivier Bei (ten Oosten van de Mamberamo rivier) welke hij San Augustin noemde. Hij vond dat het land overeenkomsten toonde met een ander Spaans territory "Guinea" op Africa's west kust, vandaar de naam "Nueva Guinea". Pas 100 jaar later ontdekte men dat Nieuw Guinea een eiland was (in 1607 merkte de Spanjaard Luiz Vaez de Torres dat al op, maar de informatie werd niet aan cartografen doorgegeven. De Straat van Torres Strait scheidt Australia van Nieuw Guinea).
De Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC, 1602-1799) had van de Nederlandse regering bijna dezelfde rechten verkregen als een onafhankelijke staat, deels omdat communicatie tussen Nederland en AziŽ zo langzaam was dat coloniale activiteiten eenvoudig weg niet vanuit Amsterdam gestuurd konden worden. In 1605 zond de VOC een expeditie naar het oosten vauit Bantam, het ship Duyfken voer langs de zuidkust van Nieuw Guinea op zoek naar goud en in 1642 verkende Abel Tasman de kust op zijn terugreis van Nieuw Zeeland. De VOC had weinig interesse voor Nieuw Guinea. Men hoopte dat de Sultans van Tidore (evenals Ternate, een oud en machtig sultanate, onder Nederlands orde sinds 1654, maar de Sultan's nominale macht erkennend) de piraterij zou verminderen, en het gebruik door Spanje en Engeland als tussen basis om de Spijzen Eilanden zou beeindigen. (De handel in spijzen en kruiden had van origine grote culturele en economische waarde. De Spijzen eilanden omvatte de Molukken (Indonesische Propinsi Maluku), bestaande uit ongeveer 1,000 eilanden tussen Celebes and West Papua: Ambon, Aru, Bacan, Banda, Barbar, Baru, Ceram, Gebe, Halmahera, Haruku, Kai, Leti, Mayu, Morotai, Obi, Saparua, Sula, Tanimbar, Ternate, Tidore and Wetar eilanden/eiland groepen.)
In 1610 creŽerde de VOC de post Gouverneur-Generaal voor Nederlands Oost IndiŽ, een positie die bleef bestaan tot 1941.
De eerste Europese poging tot Kolonisatie van Nieuw Guinea werd gemaakt in 1793 door Luitenant John Hayes, een Britse marine officier, bij Manokwari. Vroege pogingen tot bewoning door Britten en Nederlanders faalden door ziektes en de vijandigheid van de Papoeas.
17 Maart, 1824: de Britten en Nederlanders ondetekenen het "Verdrag van Londen" en verdelen IndiŽ. De Nederlanders claimden Sumatra, Java, Molukken en Nieuw Guinea; de Britten MaleisiŽ en Singapore, en zij behielden rechten op een gedeelte in Noord Borneo. Atjeh zou onafhankelijk blijven. Een groot deel van van de grenzen gedefinieerd in dit verdrag, zouden later de grenzen van de Republiek IndonesiŽ worden.

2. 1828-1941 - Verdeling.
De Nederlanders claimden het gebied ten westen 141° Oosterlengte, op 24 Augustus 24, 1828, bij proclamatie. In 1895 the oostelijke grens werd vastegelegd op 141° 1'47" O.l. De eerste vestiging was in Merkusoord/Fort Du Bus, in 1828 en werd verlaten in 1836. De eerste permanente administratieve posten, in Fakfak en Manokwari, werden pas opgezte in 1898.
In 1884 annexeerde Duitsland het Noord-Oosten als Kaiser Wilhelmsland. In 1899 gaf de Duitse regering de explotatie rechten aan de "Neuguinea Compagnie".
Het Zuid-Oosten werd door Engeland geclaimd op 6 November, 1884, met de vestiging van Port Moresby. In 1906 werd Brits Nieuw Guinea administratief beheerd door Australia als "Papua". Duits Nieuw Guinea en de Solomon Eilanden vormden de "New Guinea Territory", beheerd door AustraliŽ als mandaat gebied van de Vereinigde Naties in 1921, ne de Eerste Wereldoorlog. In 1945 combineerde AustraliŽ het beheer van Papua en het mandaat in de "Territory of Papua New Guinea", met als hoofdstad Port Moresby. Vanaf 1946 werd het de "U.N. Australian Trust Territory of New Guinea". Zelf-regering werd bereikt op 1 December, en volledige onafhankelijkheid van AustraliŽ op 16 September, 1975.
Nederlands Oost IndiŽ (tegenwoordig IndonesiŽ) werd voor het eerst "IndonesiŽ" genooemd door een Duitse geograaf in 1884, alhoewel deze naam waarschijnlijk stamt van Indos Nesos, "Indische Eilanden," in de oude handels taal van deze regio.
Toen het eiland verdeeld werd tussen Nederland, Engeland en Duitsland, hadden geen van deze naties een administratieve aanwezigheid. Laat in de eeuw, aangespoord door Britse en Duitse aktiviteiten in het Oosten, vestigde Nederland een administratieve post in Manokwari en Fakfak in 1898 en Merauke in 1902 en beheerde haar 15 posten in Nederlands Nieuw Guinea tot de Japanse invasie in 1941.
Haji Misbach, een Islamitische Communist, werd verbannen door de Nederlanders naar Nieuw Guinea in 1924. In 1927, werden ongeveer 1.300 Communists gevangen gezet in Nieuw Guinea na een opstand in Java.

3. 1941-1945: Tweede Wereldoorlog.
New Guinea dominates the Solomons and the westen sea lanes to Australia. To control New Guinea is to control the Island Continent, so the battle for New Guinea is the battle for Australia. To regain control of New Guinea the Allies (Americans & Australians) had to eject the Japanese from 1,200 miles of fortified coastline. 13,000 Japanese died here; 2,100 Australians died and 3,500 were wounded; and 2,000 Americans died and 950 were wounded.
The Japanese invaded New Guinea from November 1941 till April 1942 and occupied the Dutch part (except for Merauke) and the northern Australian part (Fakfak fell April 1, Manokwari April 12). After the bombing of Australia's harbor Darwin in February 1942, they set up headquarters in Buna and the allied headquarters were in Port Moresby, divided by the steep slopes of the Owen Stanley Range, connected by the Kokoda trail (for which the Australian diggers cut out a 4,000 step staircase).
Besides the Japanese, malaria was a considerable enemy.
After the Battle of the Coral Sea, May 4-8, 1942, the battle went slowly westward to the Salamander's/Bird's head, for the jump off to the Phillipines. Buna fell in January 23, 1943; Huon Bay September 4-22; Saidor January 2, 1944; Hollandia April 22; Biak, its Mokmer Airfield and Sansapor July 30, 1944.
America's secret weapon in the Pacific were Americans of Japanese ancestry: Issei (Japanese born Americans), Nisei (Americans of Japanese parents), Kisei (American born, educated in Japan).
In August 1944 the Japanse commander Lt. Gen. Hatazo Adachi retreated to jungle and geurilla warfare until Japan's surrender August 15, 1945.

4. 1945-1962: Netherlands New Guinea.
With the end of the Second World War in 1945, neighbouring Indonesia quickly declared independence from the Netherlands in the same year and claimed West Papua, East Timor, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo as part of its territory. On December 27, 1949 Indonesia gained full independence from Holland and attempted to claim and gain West Papua as part of its nationhood. Holland retained its colonial presence in West Papua and prepared to bring about its independence. Negotiations at this time between the Dutch and Indonesia included the active participation of West Papuans including the current Chairman of the OPM Mr Moses Werror. Through the 1950's Indonesia persistently maintained their claim to Papua and when invited to present their claim to an International Court of Law declined, given the fact that they had no legal claim on any part of Greater New Guinea. West New Guinea was under Dutch occupation from 1949 till 1962.
1956: New Guinea becomes part of "the Kingdom of the Netherlands" constitution.
Irian may be an abbreviation for ikut Republik Indonesia Anti Nederland ("join the Republic of Indonesia anti the Netherlands")
1957: Sukarno unifies power in his own person.
1957: Australia and Holland work closely together to define a blueprint for West Papuan independence. The principles were as follows:
1. The Netherlands and Australian Governments base their policies with regard to the territories of New Guinea, for which they are responsible, on the interests and inalienable rights of their inhabitants to conformity with the provisions and the spirit of the United Nation charter.
2. The territories of Netherlands New Guinea, the Australian Trust Territory of New Guinea and Papua, are geographically and ethnically related and future development of their respective populations must benefit from co-operation in policy and administration.
3. The Australian and Netherlands governments are therefore pursuing, and will continue to pursue, policies directed toward the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples in the territories in a manner which recognises this ethnological and geographical affinity.
4. At the same time, the two governments will continue, and strengthen, the co-operation existing between their respective administrations in the territories.
5. In so doing the two governments are determined to promote an uninterupted development of this process. Unfortunately this positive statement toward self determination was never signed.
1961: a West Papuan Council (Nieuw Guinea Raad) is elected, "My Beloved Papua" is composed as the national anthem, a flag (morning star) is designed and 1970 set as the date for West Papuan independence. This date is used as the national day for West Papua. This infuriated Indonesia and it duly responded by sending in an invasion force of 1,419 guerilla soldiers, with the intention of sending in a main invasion force later. War between Holland and Indonesia appeared inevitable with the likelihood of Australia becoming involved.
1961 proclamation of independence by an armed nationalist group, the Free Papua Movement (OPM, Organisasi Papua Merdeka). 1 December 1961. The Netherlands approved the establishment of the Nieuw Guinea Raad, including the declaration of West Papua as a state, Papua sa the people, My Beloved Papua as the national anthem, and the Morning Star as the National Flag. This date is used as the national day for West Papua.

5. 1962-1963: UNTEA.
From October 1, 1962 till May 1, 1963, West New Guinea is part of UNTEA, United Nations Temporary Executive Authority.
1962: It was at this point that John F Kennedy intervened. The Soviet Union had brokered a billion dollar arms deal with Indonesia and the US countered this with a comparable deal viewing Indonesia as a prize too important to lose to the Communist Bloc. Scared of the possible threat of further communist expansion in SE Asia and the looming Vietnam conflict Kennedy pressured Holland and Australia to cease all involvement in granting West Papua independence, and offers West Papua to Indonesia. Secret negotiations ensued, which involved no West Papuans (unlike in 1949), to give West Papua to Indonesia. A proviso was included, that there would be a United Nations administrated 'Act of Free Choice' by 1969, where the West Papuan people could decide their own future. To remain with Indonesia, or be independent?
The issue is heading toward a crisis, and the stakes involved - Indonesia's potential swing to a pro Soviet stance - dictate cold realpolitik ... So to gain us time in Indonesia, and to fight what will be at best a protracted conflict for what at best will be a pro-western neutralism, West New Guinea is the price." Pemberton, Ref 8. p87. He further went to say; "We must sell them (Australia) the proposition that a pro-Bloc (if not Communist) Indonesia is an entirely greater threat to them (and us) than Indonesian possession of a few thousand square miles of cannibal land." Pemberton, Ref 8. p.101.
See The United nations in West New Guinea, An unprecedented story.

6. 1963-1969: Irian Barat/Irian Jaya.
On May 1, 1963, Indonesia became the new colonial power in West Papua New Guinea: the elected West Papuan Council is disbanded, West Papuan flags are banned and burnt, singing of the West Papuan national anthem 'O, My Land Papua' is banned, the founding of any new political parties is banned, and anything else to do with West Papuan independence is burnt and destroyed. The Organisasi Papua Merdeka, OPM resistance movement is founded to fight for West Papuan independence.
Suharto became President of Indonesia on March 12, 1967 (until 1998) and changed the name Sukarnapura to Jayapura (Djajapura), Irian Barat in Irian Jaya.
April 1967: Indonesia enters into agreements with Freeport (a New Orleans company and now Indonesia's largest single tax payer) for mining rights in West Papua's mountains.
It was transferred to Indonesia in 1963, with provision for the holding of a plebiscite by 1969 to decide Irian Barat's future.

7. After 1969: Irian Jaya.
July 15-August 2 1969: Village councils in Irian Jaya, under pressure from Opsus special forces in the region, vote in favor of joining Indonesia.
September 17, 1969: Irian Jaya is formally made a province of Indonesia.
In 1975 and 1977, some refugees from Maluku who had fought against the Republic of Indonesia as "Republik Maluku Selatan" (RMS) took hostages in terrorist incidents in the Netherlands. In spite of the heavy media coverage of these events, the actions drew little support inside Indonesia, partly because so many RMS supporters had fled to the Netherlands in the early 1950s.
August 26, 1975: UDT takes control in Timor by coup; the Portuguese (who had first arrived in 1515, with a continuous presence since 1700) simply left. In November Fretilin declares independence, demands withdrawal of Indonesian units. In December Indonesia launches a full invasion of East Timor. May 31, 1976: "People's Assembly" in East Timor declares for integration with Indonesia. July 17, 1976: East Timor officially becomes an Indonesian province.
September 16, 1975: Papua New Guinea gaines independence.
1991. The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is founded in by representatives of occupied nations, indigenous peoples, minorities, and other disenfranchised peoples who currently struggle to preserve their cultural identities, protect their basic human rights, safeguard the environment or regain their lost countries.
January 3, 2000. During a visit to Irian Jaya over the weekend, Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid agreed that the easternmost province would revert to its former name of West Papua. "As for an independent Papua state ... I will not tolerate efforts to build a country within a country", he said.

8. Tijdsbalken.

  • Online Time-Line of Indonesia
  • Irja.org Chronology

    Last updated March 1, 2005
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